Fake news is a terrible problem in the US. In many other countries it is much worse:
- According to Freedom House, only 13% of the world’s population live in countries with a free press;
- In many developing countries, citizens have lower media literacy than those in rich countries;
- In developing countries, there can be a blind trust of information via new technologies;
- Many people get information from social networks on Facebook or WhatsApp, immediatly trusting what others have to say;
- There often is a paucity of credible news sources or professional journalism to counterbalance rumor;
- Many forces use social media maliciously, often with the backing of the state (such as Russian efforts in Ukraine).
To combat fake news in developing countries, it is necessary to take the same steps required in developed countries.
Even more, however, is necessary.
Often an independent, trained local media will need to be built up from nothing. Internews programs in Afghanistan, for example, have covered the country with professional, local radio broadcasting in regional languages.
Low-tech options for citizen journalism exist. CGNet Swara, for example, lets anyone call in and record a report by cell phone. Submissions are reviewed and curated into a newsfeed for the community.
Media literacy programs become even more important. In Ukraine, for example, media training programs for youth are now included in the national curriculum.
And many organizations need to participate in fact-checking. In Kenya, for example, Safaricom (the mobile phone company and Kenya’s largest corporation) spends 50% of its communications team resources combatting fake news.
Fake news is a major challenge in developing countries. With the rapid expansion of broadband, problems are poised to become even more difficult.